Aspergillus is ubiquitous in the environment and normally does not pose a threat to the vast majority of individuals. Invasive aspergillosis occurs largely in immunosuppressed patients when Aspergillus infects the lungs and subsequently spreads through the bloodstream leading to infections in organs. Invasive aspergillosis also arises in patients with leukemia whose immune systems are attenuated, affecting 10% to 20% of patients. Between 5% and 13% of patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and 5% to 25% percent of recipients of solid organ transplants develop invasive aspergillosis.
Due to its potency, voriconazole is the standard of care for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. However, on-treatment mortality rates remain at approximately 50%. Cloudbreak compounds may have the potential to significantly decrease mortality rates in invasive aspergillosis as an adjunctive therapy to standard of care by directing the immune system to the site of infection.