Systemic Candida Infections

Systemic Candida infections include candidemia and related cases of invasive candidiasis. In the United States, candidemia is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. While the limited data available on hospitalized patients varies widely, rates of between one and two cases per 1,000 hospital admissions have been reported in the United States, Europe and Latin America.

Despite advances achieved in the diagnosis and treatment of candidemia, these infections continue to cause high mortality rates. According to a study published in Clinical Infectious Disease (2009), candidemia has a mortality rate of 35% within 12 weeks of diagnosis. By contrast, the CDC reports that the mortality rate due to MRSA infections is 12.8%. Further, it is estimated that each case of candidemia results in an additional 23 days of hospitalization and over $68,000 in treatment costs.

Candida infections are particularly challenging to treat in patients whose immune systems have been compromised, such as patients undergoing organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy, as well as those with weakened immune systems due to aging and other underlying conditions, including, but not limited to, diabetes, metabolic diseases, HIV and chronic use of antibiotics.

Classes of Antifungals

Systemic fungal infections are primarily treated using three classes of antifungals that target either fungal cell membranes or cell wall synthesis. However, each of these antifungal classes has limitations that may be addressed by novel antifungals:


Polyenes, first marketed in 1954, were the first drug class discovered to be effective against systemic fungal infections. Polyenes such as amphotericin B bind to and disrupt the integrity of ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane. Polyenes are associated with severe and potentially life-threatening toxicities, including acute kidney and heart injury, since they are not selective to fungi and also bind to sterols in human tissues. In addition to the severe toxicity associated with amphotericin B, many patients report problems with tolerability of this drug; 40% experience nausea and/or vomiting and up to 75% experience chills. Polyenes are typically administered by daily IV infusion.


Azoles were the next major drug class found to be effective in treating candidemia and related infections, and were first marketed in the 1980s. Azoles block the enzymatic pathway that produces ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, thereby reducing the growth of the fungus but not killing it. This activity is referred to as fungistatic. Azoles are the most frequently used drugs for treatment of systemic fungal infections. While these drugs are largely effective, their side effect profile includes an increased risk of serious liver toxicity as well as rash, visual disturbances, hallucinations and fetal cardiac abnormalities. Azoles are also known to cause drug interactions, including interactions with oral contraceptives, that can limit their utility. In addition, their widespread use has led to the development of resistance, which we believe may limit the future utility of the class. A number of azoles are available in IV, oral, and topical formulations. They are typically administered on a daily basis.


Echinocandins, introduced in 2001, inhibit glucan synthase, a fungal specific enzyme required for synthesis of a key component of fungal cell walls. Inhibition of this enzyme kills Candida. Echinocandins are recommended for the first line treatment of suspected or documented fungal infections in the United States and Europe. The approved echinocandins, caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are considered both well tolerated and safe relative to other antifungal drug classes. However, they must be administered daily by IV infusion, potentially extending the hospitalization of patients for the duration of therapy and thereby limiting their use mainly to inpatients.

Despite the widespread continued use of each class of antifungals, market opportunities exist for novel therapeutics, such as rezafungin, which combine the spectrum and safety of the echinocandins with a more convenient dosing schedule enabled by improved pharmacokinetic characteristics.

Emerging Resistance to Antifungals

The CDC reports that certain species of Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to available antifungals, such as the azoles and approved echinocandins. Widespread usage of antifungals in the azole class, in particular, has stimulated an increase in strains of Candida that have a high rate of azole resistance. A recent U.S. study found that the percentage of non-albicans Candida species increased from 46% in 2006 to 60% in 2011.